CAMPO MAIOR 

                                                                                             

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Independently of legend or traditions, its origin can be in some Roman villa or population center. Its existence seems proven during the Muslim domination, because the city was conquered to the Arabs after the taking of Badajoz by the king of Leon in 1230. Named bishop of that Fray city Perez de Badajoz, when knowing the this existence a pocket of resistance, sent an expedition that conquered the villa for the crown of Castile, being incorporated the council of the present frontier capital.

It remained under the flag of Castile until the year 1297 in which the Treaty of Alcañices was signed, by which the border between the peninsular kingdoms is reshaped, passing Field Mayor and Olivenza to comprise of the history of the crown lusa.

PRODUCTS OF THE LAND...

After his conquest by Castile in 1230, Alfonso X the Wise person in 1255 grants the category to him of villa, being the bishop of Badajoz that years later grants own fueros to him. In May of 1297 it definitively happens to be Portuguese territory, getting up itself to his crown during of king Don Dionís, who ordered to construct the castle that today the population presides over, strength that is distinguished by its acute battlements.

When the wars arrive from Succession and Restoration between the peninsular kingdoms, Maior Field acquires strategic relevance, and the population got to divide itself between its preferences by the kingdoms of Castilla and Portugal. All the intense combat operations of those centuries, motivated that their defenses and fortifications were increased extraordinarily, getting up itself to a line of defense of capital importance, that in the center-west of Portugal, defended until the first of century IXX proximities of Lisbon.

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In 1644 the Marquess of Torrecusa tries to conquer without obtaining it, in spite of the great inequality of forces between the parts contenders. In this heroic exploit it stood out his governor, the captain Pascual gives Coast. In 1712, Field Maior is submitted again to a hard siege by the Castilian army supervised by the Marquess of Bay, resisting the same one during mas of one month. Similar episode happened in 1762, when Bras de Carvalho organized a tenacious defense of the city before a new assault of Castile.

During the dawn of the 16 of September of 1732, an accident almost triggers the explosion of the powder magazine of the seat, that was located in the castle, perishing in this incident half of the inhabitants of the city. King D. Juan V, had the immediate reconstruction of the population and its military installations, conscious of his defensive and strategic importance.

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Towards the XVIII, the adjustment of its walls to the new military tactics begins, beginning the construction of its fortified with bastions fortification, directed by Nicolau de Langres. Parallelly the city is prepared to be a military population and military quarters, arsenals and other constructions rise. In the Peninsular Wars of Independence, caused by the French invasions, the allied and French forces disputed to the seat in diverse occasions, suffering the population numerous sieges and some lootings.

Expelled the forces of Napoleon de la Península Ibérica, the peace turns definitively to the border, that once stabilized, it does that the fortifications that were marking it from north to south, are losing progressively his strategic value and his military character, situation that leads to the reduction or elimination of his harness, with the consequent deterioration of some of his monuments.

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Antonio García Candelas        Suggestions and impressions

ELVAS PORTALEGRE OUGUELA

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