EVORA

World Heritage Humanity City 

In the footsteps of the numerous civilizations that made up its history, when the Portuguese kingdom spread southward, Evora made his way into the increasingly thriving life of the Portuguese nation, becoming one of its dynamic and flourishing masclaves. The American adventure and the return of conquerors and adventurers, favored its growth. Large number of noble houses and palaces, next to its University founded by Cardinal Don Enrique, make it a wonderful museum, presided over by the Renaissance and Manueline styles.

Evora and the Lusita aniseed monarchs

It was elevated to the capital of the kingdom and for long periods, the Court established its residence here. The population lived a long period of flowering, since after the nobility numerous religious orders were established, which founded a large number of churches and convents. During the reign of the Avís dynasty, they erected important monuments of architectural styles as diverse as Mudejar, Manueline Gothic, Renaissance or Mannerist. The nobility contributed with his presence to the enrichment of the monumental heritage, as numerous noble palaces and houses were built, whose owners competed with each other in important tasks of patronage. John II, D. Manuel I and D. John III led her to reach her greatest splendour, back in the sixteenth century, endowing her with her prestigious University born from the hands of the Society of Jesus. The frequent struggles with Castile favored the strengthening of its fortifications, regardless of the numerous fortresses that stood between the city and the border. The primitive Roman, Arab and Christian constructions were rebuilt and adapted to the new times, ensuring defense through various defensive belts.

After the invasion of the Arabs, the population was conquered in 715 or 717. During the period of the first taifa kingdoms, it was one of the most important cities of the Badajoz. In the short period of the second taifas, it was independent territory, threatened by the constant pressure of the nascent Lusithan kingdom. The defensive elements were reused by Visigoths and Arabs, as well as by the kingdom of Portugal, after the conquest of the city, by Gerardo the "sem dread". As the city expanded outside the Mulsuman defenses, the need for a new walled fence throughout the 16th century, during the reign of Alfonso IV of Portugal, expanded. Evora was the site of the monarchy that was stationed in the city for different periods of time.
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After the conquest of the city the Portuguese jercito in the year 1166, the construction of the first cathedral dedicated to the Virgin Mary was started, Its construction style is between the Romanesque and the Gothic. The temple had successive reforms and extensions. Around 1330 a cloister of pure Gothic style was added and later high choir, pulpit, baptistery and the chapel of Our Lady of Piety in Manueline style were added. In the first half of the eighteenth century, its main chapel of Baroque style was erected.

The most important historical figure of the city is linked to the cathedral. The Cardinal and later King, D. Henry I of Portugal. He was the brother of John III of Portugal and after the Battle of Alcazarquivir succeeded his nephew Sebastian I of Portugal. After his death in 1580 without leaving direct heirs, a succession crisis was addressed that ended with the appointment of Philip II of Spain as king of Portugal.

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Dozens of monumental churches and convents are divided by the intricate urban fabric of the city, but a small chapel belonging to the Church of San Francisco, in the center of the monumental city differs from all the others. Despite its splendor and magnificence, this particular corner that evokes the relationships between life and death, was built by the will of three 17th-century monks. It has only 200 square meters, dark and dark, which causes the visitor a strange sensation. Everything is produced by the cladding chosen to "adorn" its ceilings, walls and columns. Materials used: skulls, tibias, fibusians, even complete skeletons. This is the "Chapel of Bones".

As a result of Philip II's reign, the court decided to relocate again to Lisbon and with it, the ensuity of nobles and clerics sought in royal protection, the continuation of privileges and servitudes. From then on, Evora was watching as citizen life gradually lost its strength, although it maintained the political and administrative capital of its geographical area, from which many important populations of the south center of Portugal continued to hang.

 

In the seventeenth century throughout the Restoration War, the AbaluartAda Wall was built, which adapted the defenses of the population to the new defensive techniques against the unusual power of the new artillery. This fortification known as seiscientista, consisted of six bastions (jesus, Machede, Aca, Picadeiro, Principe and Count of Lippe) and a strong exterior, dedicated to Sao Bartolomeu. It was staffed by prestigious engineers such as Jean Gillot or Nicolau de Langres.

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Suggestions and impressions

  Antonio García Candelas        Sugerencias e impresiones

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