the valls of badajoz badajoz walls and fortifications

THE WALLS OF BADAJOZAS

Since its founding in 875 the city of Badajoz, it has had several defensive enclosures that protected it from its enemies. The Cerro de la Muela area was the first to fortify. And so, after the centuries it was expanding and strengthening, until at a certain time, its capacity did not allow to provide accommodation to its inhabitants and the forces that made up its garrison. To the east and over the stream Rivillas settled the Arrabal Oriental, from whose fence ain remains are preserved. Later the city spread west and south, where there could be at least two more fences protecting the new arrabales.

Years ago, an anonymous 1645 plan was discovered at the Military Museum in Stockholm showing in detail the urban plot of Badajoz and the walled belt surrounding the city. It was the second fortified belt that we have known documentaryly and of which today we know only some vestiges scattered on the periphery of the old town.

And the reason the Old Fence disappeared was the construction soon after, of the bulging fortification, erected to adapt the city's defenses to modern defense and attack techniques, established with the birth of the new artillery. Lower walls and located on the ground, equipped with strongholds (low-rise pentagonal towers) were needed with suitable adarves to place defense gunner batteries. The new construction swept away with all the old medieval walls. In the plane below these lines, these different fences are colored.

THE ARAB DEFENSES OF THE CITY OF BADAJOZ

The wall that makes up the Alcazaba de Badajoz has a slightly oval shape, being the largest in Spain. He has stayed the primitive population since its founding. The initial calphate-era enclosure was initially of much smaller dimensions, and was later extended to the Rivillas where the Eastern Arrabal was erected. With the Almohades reforms the fortress approached the Guadiana, where fortified shells were built to provide abundant and safe water to the population. The city was later expanded by the only possible place, to the west, which was an area of more difficult defense, as the terrain is quite flat. The old walls were joined by powerful Albarrana towers and the main enclosure was endowed with doors in a fold. As seen in the 1645 plan, the Old Fence had Albanian and Barbacan towers, which expertly suggests that the Arab city was able to reach these limits. The disappearance of Arab cemeteries under the bastions of Santiago and San Juan corroborates this theory, since at that time the burials became outside the walls.

murallas murallas desde el rio

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THE OLD FENCE

Returning to the Stockholm plane, it can be seen how this fortification circled the old town to its full extent, and even exceeded by some points the limits of the later built bulging wall. Already old, the old fence, inherited in much of the Muslim era, was in a sorry state and its defenses were highly vulnerable to the destructive power of new artillery. For this reason in the soothing plane, a series of half moons appear that aimed to protect the most vulnerable points of the square. In the details of the plan, on the left, you can clearly see small revellines or lunettes located in front of the old Albarrana towers and some of the city gates. In the image on the right is recreated the old door of Santa Marina, highlighted on the same plane.

puerta medieval de pajaritos

luneta puerta alpendiz
puerta de pelambres y plataforma de redondo badajoz cerca vieja badajoz
During the Portuguese siege in 1600, besiegers built a series of earthly fortifications to complete the city siege. Some of these enclaves still remain "printed" on the ground around Badajoz.
fuierte de las mayas
FORT OF THE HILL OF THE MAYAS DEFENSIVE LINE OF THE SLOPES OF THE ORINAZA FUORT OF THE SLOPES OF THE ORINAZA

THE FORTIFICATION BASTION OF BADAJOZ

The construction soon after, of the bulwark fortification, was the cause of the disappearance of the Old Fence. The new fortification was largely built on the medieval fence, replacing the old stones with pentagonal bastions joined by curtains built of stones and supported internally by clouted land intended to absorb the impacts of artillery. Externally, lunettes, revellins and exterior forts are contrasted. Lower walls were built and located on the ground, equipped with bulwarks with suitable adarves to place artillery batteries for their defense.
Puerta de San Vicente puerte del pilar
baluartes   desde la cabeza del puente

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baluartes reves baluartes

MONUMENTS

BADAJOZ